Exploring the Life and Works of Edgar Rice Burroughs

FAQs, Articles, Reviews, Persona Directory, Hall of Memory
Summarizing ERB's works one chapter at a time
Shorts, Novels, Poetry, Plays, Pulps
Articles, Contributors: Tangor Responds, Edgardemain, ERB: In Focus, Nkima Speaks, Beyond 30W, Tantor Trumpets, Dime Lectures, Korak in Pal-ul-don, Public Domain novels of ERB
Worlds of: Barsoom, Pellucidar, Moon, Amtor, Caspak, Pal-u-don

"WE STILL LIVE!" ...John Carter
Copyright © 1982, 1996-2003 All Rights Reserved.


Barsoom has a long history which encompasses near geologic time frames. When the planet was young sailing ships conducted commerce upon the five mighty oceans of Barsoom, traveling from one fabulous port to another. Over the millenia, as the oceans dried up and the "barbarian races" began to make inroads upon the older Orovar civilization, many of the early cities were abandoned after centuries of struggle. The green hordes moved into the vacated cities, often taking the name of these deserted metropoli as their tribal names.

During the same time period (the drying up of the oceans of Mars) the red, black, and yellow races were organizing and beginning to build their own city/states. On a planet where dwindling natural resources insured constant battle between tribes, cities, even nations, the strongest survived and those less strong were doomed to obscurity. The upstart red race, perhaps the youngest of all the Barsoomian races, has a history stretching back nearly 100,000 years. In that time many cities and nations arose, blossomed, and eventually succumbed to invaders.

One of the more interesting pasttimes of Barsoomian readers is locating the various cities, "dead" or currently occupied, as listed in the stories told by Edgar Rice Burroughs. The following list of Barsoomian cities contains physical locations by Latitude and Longitude which are found either in the texts themselves or from the hand drawn maps Ed Burroughs created. See MAPS.


dead city located southwest of Helium and southeast of Torquas. (50S 80E or 55S 70E)
700 miles north of Morbus, at war with Duhor; The avenues leading to it [Jal Had's palace] were lined with the palaces of the nobility, just beyond which were the better-grade shops and hotels. Amhor is a small city and the only one in the principality which might claim the dignity of such a title, the others being but small and widely scattered villages. The chief business of the principality is the raising of thoats and zitidars, the former the saddle animals and the latter the mammoth draft animals of Mars. Both are also raised for food, and Amhors exports preserved meats, hides, and other by-products to Duhor, Phundahl, and Toonol. (42N 118W)
Nation of Kaldanes. A pastoral valley with running water used for agriculture. Land of the spider-men and the headless rykor, which appears to be a fully developed red martian of both sexes, but without heads. (46S 46W)
Illinois, United States.
A Martian City, by Tangor
10,500 haads NW of Helium. 7,800 haads west of Toonolian Marshes on western side of Artolian Hills (aka Snow Clad Mountains) at war with Amhor (40N 178W)
West of Ptarth, noted for honey production. (15N 60E)
Barsoomian Grenwich. (0 lat 0 lon)
NW of Helium. Titled the oldest inhabited city of Barsoom. Gathol began as an island in Throxeus and as the ocean disappeared, the city built down the emerging seamount. Surrounded by salt marshes, Gathol has never been conquered though many have tried to take possession of the fabulous diamond mines beneath the city. Noted for fine grazing lands. (6N 15W)
located Hohr Valley (extinct volcano) NW of Tjanath. (58S 70W)
city on Island of Ompt in the Toonolian Marshes. Inhabited by the Kangaroo men of Barsoom.
city/nation of Helium; located southwest of the twin cities of Helium; noted for shipyards that service the Heliumetic navy. (33S 106E)
Scarlet Tower, Helium, Tangor
1,600 miles from Exum. Helium is the nation of red men that accepts, and elevates, John Carter to Warlord of Mars. Helium is comprised of several city/states, including Greater Helium, Lesser Helium, and Hastor; has a vigorous industry, including great shipyards which produce thousands of aircraft each year, agriculture, ranching, some minor forestry, science and technology; one of the more populous red nations; maintains a standing army and navy of 1,000,000 men. Greater Helium and Lesser Helium, often referred to as the twin cities, are actually 75 miles apart; both cities feature immense towers reaching one mile in height--the Scarlet and Yellow Towers. (30S 106E)
1,500 miles NW Gathol, 5,000 miles NW Helium, last stronghold of surviving Orovars except Lothar (48N 0Lon)
domed city of Okar, north pole which is most distant from Kadabra.
city located in the Forest of Lost Men near Polodona (the equator).
City/state in southern hemisphere; U-Gor is a province of Jahar. (30S 35E)
Okarian capital, north pole; ... the walled and glass-roofed city of Kadabra. It lies in a low depression near the pole, surrounded by rocky, snow-clad hills. ... Its crystal domes sparkled in the brilliant sunlight gleaming above the frost-covered outer wall that circles the entire one hundred miles of its circumference.
city in the Valley of First Born between Gathol and Horz
- located in the Kaolian Forest; noted for lumber exports; a city surrounded by glass-smooth walls 75 feet in height. (Warlord)
Kaol, Tangorvassal city/state of Helium (25S 45W)
a dead city; Dejah Thoris related many interesting facts and legends concerning this lost race of noble and kindly people. She said that the city in which we were camping was supposed to have been a center of commerce and culture known as Korad. It had been built upon a beautiful, natural harbor, landlocked by magnificent hills. The little valley on the west front of the city, she explained, was all that remained of the harbor, while the pass through the hills to the old sea bottom had been the channel through which the shipping passed up to the city's gates.
a dead city deserted over 1,000 years. Pew Mogel set up shop here. The City of Korvas, as every Martian schoolboy knew, had been deserted for a thousand years; yet many of the skulls and bones were recently picked clean of their flesh. Carter had seen no evidence in the city of any life other than the great white apes and the mysterious giant, and the rats themselves.
Hawaii, United States.
a lost city of the ancient Orovars? (Kar Komak was an incarnation of an Orovar captain); home to a race of white human martians with uncanny mental abilities; Guided by the noise of these habitually angry beasts, he stole forward through the trees until at last he came upon a level, treeless plain, in the centre of which a mighty city reared its burnished domes and vividly coloured towers. (43S 30E)
see Manator
Fields of Jetan, Tangor
814 miles west of Gathol. The main city of the Manatorians. Notable for lacking technology common to other red martian nations and maintaining extensive exhibits of deceased citizens and honored enemies in a form of taxidermy. In Manator the game of Jetan is taken seriously, every ten years the Fields of Jetan are the scene of violent and deadly contests of human players taking the parts of Jetan pieces. (3N 38W)
see Manator
a principality of Okar with natural defenses that preclude easy conquest by land.
700 miles south of Amhor; where Ras Thavas pefected the hormad; ...approached a large island rising from the surrounding morass. One of the innumerable winding waterways skirted its northern boundary, widening here to form a small lake on the shore of which lay a small walled city...clusters of small huts scattered about the island... Morbus differed from any Maritan city I had ever visited. The buildings were substantial and without ornamentation, but there was a certain dignity to the simplicity of their lines that lent them a beauty all their own. It gave the impression of a new city laid out in accordance with some well conceived plan, every line of which spelled efficiency. Morbus was rebuilt by Ras Thavas over the foundations of an ancient city; densely populated by hormads; ruled by the Council of Seven Jeds, seven hormads.
-- undefined area of Jupiter ruled by Bandolian.
New York City
New York, United States.
nation of yellow men at north pole
The Tarids castle/fortress on Ladan (Thuria); constructed of precious and semi-precious stones, many lofty towers, located near a river and surrounded by forest (Swords)
a city in the Forest of Lost Men near Polodona (the equator).
Nation of red men at North Pole ruled by Hin Abtol.
city of Panar; Pankor was much like Kadabra, the capital city of Okar, only much smaller. Though the country around it and up to its walls was clothed in snow and ice, none lay upon the great crystal dome which roofed the entire city; and beneath the dome a pleasant, springlike atmosphere prevailed. Its avenues were covered with the sod of the mosslike ocher vegetation which clothes the dead sea bottoms of the red planet, and bordered by well kept lawns of crimson Barsoomian grass. Along these avenues sped the noiseless traffic of light and airy ground fliers with which I had become familiar in Marentina and Kadabra long years before.
-- Inner Earth, mentioned.
west end of the Toonolian Marshes; located near broken canyons and hills containing tracts of sompus trees to the southwest; continually at war with Toonol. (20N 120W)
allied to Helium by the marriage of Carthoris and Thuvia; 9,500 haads northeast of Helium; also allied with Kaol. (13 or 15N 168W)
northern hemisphere, sacked by Hin Abtol. (60N 40W)
Virginia, United States.
-- undefined area of Jupiter with invisible houses.
California, United States.
ancient city where a group of green martian tribes take their name and is their main gathering place. (50S 122E)
ancient city where a group of green martian tribes take their name and is their main gathering place.
southern hemisphere, near Ghasta (60S 70W)
East of the Toonolian Marshes; continually at war with Phundahl. From the summit of the landing tower I had my first view of a Martian city. Several hundred feet below me lay spread the broad, well-lighted avenues of Toonol, many of which were crowded with people. Here and there, in this central district, a building was raised high upon its supporting, cylindrical metal shaft; while further out, Where the residences predominated, the city took on the appearance of a colossal and grotesque forest. Among the larger palaces only an occasional suite of rooms was thus raised high above the level of the others, these being the sleeping apartments of the owners, their servants or their guests; but the smaller homes were raised in their entirety, a precaution necessitated by the constant activities of the followers of Gor Hajus' ancient profession that permitted no man to be free from the constant menace of assassination. Throughout the central district the sky was pierced by the lofty towers of several other landing stages; but, as I was later to learn, these were comparatively few in number. Toonol is in no sense a flying nation, supporting no such enormous fleets of merchant ships and vessels of war as, for example, the twin cities of Helium or the great capital of Ptarth. (21N 98W)
an ancient dead city that is home to a group of green martian tribes. That he was within the boundary of Torquas, Carthoris was sure, but that there existed there such a wondrous city he never had dreamed, nor had the chronicles of the past even hinted at such a possibility, for the Torquasians were known to live, as did the other green men of Mars, within the deserted cities that dotted the dying planet, nor ever had any green horde built so much as a single edifice, other than the low-walled incubators where their young are hatched by the sun's heat. (28S 36E)
province of Jahar approximately 1,000 haads southeast of the captial city. (58S to 50S and 2W to 7E)
dead city. (I believe it is 40S 16E)
-- remote island on Jupiter unconquered by the Morgors, where the Savators live.
1900 miles E of Helium; a nation at war with Helium; later sacked by Tharks under John Carter's command; rebuilt Zodanga is a modern trading city with strict air traffic control, warehouses, inns and hotels, rich and poor quarters of the city. 30S 172E (ERB's map says 10S 150E)
380 miles SE of Helium (40S 120E)