Exploring the Life and Works of Edgar Rice Burroughs

FAQs, Articles, Reviews, Persona Directory, Hall of Memory
Summarizing ERB's works one chapter at a time
Shorts, Novels, Poetry, Plays, Pulps
Articles, Contributors: Tangor Responds, Edgardemain, ERB: In Focus, Nkima Speaks, Beyond 30W, Tantor Trumpets, Dime Lectures, Korak in Pal-ul-don, Public Domain novels of ERB
Worlds of: Barsoom, Pellucidar, Moon, Amtor, Caspak, Pal-u-don


Amtor (Venus)

Barsoom (Mars)

Caspak (Caprona)

Pellucidar (Earth's Core)

Vanah (Moon)

Michael is now updating these worldfaqs at his xenite.org website. (2004)

Information on Edgar Rice Burroughs can be found at the online ERBFAQ.

The WorldFAQs of Edgar Rice Burroughs

by Michael Martinez

The major invented worlds of ERB


1]. Quick Reference

Amtor is Edgar Rice Burroughs' science fantasy version of Venus, a world which in his day (1875-1950) was known to be shrouded by an impenetrable cloud cover. Carson Napier of Earth sets out in a ship of his own construction to find the immortal John Carter on Barsoom (Mars) but lands on Venus instead and experiences many adventures there. Primary sources are PIRATES OF VENUS, LOST ON VENUS, CARSON OF VENUS, ESCAPE ON VENUS, and THE WIZARD OF VENUS & PIRATE BLOOD.

Note: All of ERB's major series (Tarzan, John Carter, Carson Napier, Moon Men, etc.) are set in the same universe.

It has been pointed out to me that the Amtor books make some political references. They may well seem allegorical to some people -- at least in some places.

2]. Description

Amtor is covered by a very thick layer of clouds which occasionally open and reveal the sun to its inhabitants, who think their world is surrounded by an all-devouring fire. Some Amtorians have developed technologically advanced civilizations which exist beside barbaric nations and savage creatures of monstrous size.

Napier settles in the kingdom of Vepaja, a powerful nation on a jungle island that is relatively peaceful and civilized. He falls in love with and marries Duare, daughter of Mintep, Jong (king) of Vepaja. Their adventures together take them across the world where Carson befriends and classhes with many strange creatures, including winged men (Angans), asexual humanoids, and a horrifying city of the undead.

Like his better known Barsoom, Burroughs' Amtor is developed with a rare depth and detail that modern science fiction and fantasy authors seldom parallel. Many words from the Amtorian language are casually explained as the stories provide context for their usage. The great warships of Amtor are an anocronistic assemblage of technology and crude, primitive crews (they use flags to communicate).

The landscape of Amtor is rich and varied, containing great seas, high mountains, wide plains, intense forests and jungles, and powerful rivers. Theer are as many creatures and plants as the imagination can conceive of, and this is perhaps one of the best worlds ever created.

3]. Printed Sources Bibliography

Note:These books, originally published from 1932 through 1941 (and the last volume in 1964, 14 years after ERB's death), have been reprinted many times.

PIRATES OF VENUS, Ace Books, 1979, ISBN 0-441-66507-1.
Napier sets out for Mars but overlooks the moon's gravity in his manual calculations. Finding himself on a new course, he waits and watches anxiously until he realizes he is heading unwittingly toward Venus. Crash-landing on the planet with no hope of escaping, he finds himself in a lush jungle, where he is made captive by the peaceful Vepajans, who live in the southern hemisphere. Carson adapts to their lifestyle and learns their language, falling in love with Princess Duare, who seems beyond his reach until she is kidnapped by the Thorists, her people's powerful enemies. He follows her across the world to win her love.
LOST ON VENUS, Ace Books, 1979, ISBN 0-441-49507-9.
Carson finds and frees Duare in mainland kingdom of Kapdor, a stronghold of the Thorists. Together they flee across the continent looking for a way back to Vepaja. After several adventures they are rescued by Ero Shan, a man from Havatoo, a very advanced culture with a dark side: its sister city is ruled by Skor, a madman who animates the dead. Caught up in the rivalries between the two cities, Carson and Duare are nearly killed but finally escape in an aircar and fly back toward Vepaja.
CARSON OF VENUS, Ace Books, 1979, ISBN 0-441-09205-9.
On their way back to Vepaja, Duare tells Carson she would rather stay with him than live in her own land, where he would be put to death for speaking to her of his love. They stop to hunt for food and encounter a nation where women are the masters and men are the slaves. Eventually they come close to Vepaja but turn away and go to the northwest, to the country of Korva in Anlap, where a civil war is under way. Carson takes service with the Jong of Korva and fights the rebel Zanis. The plot twists and winds until they return to Vepaja where Duare is sentenced to die. Carson and Duare escape and return to Korva.
ESCAPE ON VENUS, Ace Books, 1979, ISBN 0-441-21566-1.
While returning to Korva in his aircraft, Carson and Duare are forced to alter their course when the sun breaks through the clouds and ravages Amtor with its heat. The detour drives them north of the equator, where they find themselves captives among primitive nations unknown to the southern hemisphere. They must first escape from the Myposans, fishlike humans who enslave other races, but only find themselves caught up in a war between Myposa and Japal. Eventually, they meet up again with their old friend Ero Shan, after encountering more strange lands and creatures return to Korva.
THE WIZARD OF VENUS & PIRATE BLOOD, Ace Books, 1979, ISBN 0-441-90194-8.
Trying to help Ero Shan return to Havatoo, Carson and Duare are caught up in the fiendish plots of Vootogan Morgas, a "wizard" who has mastered hypnotism. They confront the self-proclaimed wizard when they realize they have to defeat him in order to escape his clutches. Eventually, Morgas is defeated. PIRATE BLOOD has nothing to do with the Carson of Venus series, but is thought to have been a first draft of a novel that for some reason was bundled with WIZARD OF VENUS.

4]. Visual Sources Bibliography

DC Comics published a brief adaptation of these books in the early 1970s. According to Laurent "In Korak #46-56. The ones I have feature Mike Kaluta art."


1]. Quick Reference

Barsoom is Edgar Rice Burroughs' science fantasy world of John Carter, an Earthman who is miraculously immortal and able to travel instantaneously from Earth to Mars and back again. John Carter is Burroughs' second best-known character (Tarzan being the best-known) and probably the most well-known of the early space-faring swashbucklers. Primary sources are the eleven books of the Martian Series (see bibliography below). Note: All of ERB's major series (Tarzan, John Carter, Carson Napier, Moon Men, etc.) are set in the same universe.

2]. Printed Sources Bibliography

Note:These stories, originally published from 1912 through 1942, have been reprinted many times. The John Carter books have been reprinted too many times for ISBN values to be relevant. The Doubleday Science Fiction Book Club has offered various Martian books through the years, and Del Rey books still publishes the series in paperback. Older paperback editions were published by Ballantine and New English Library. The stories were originally serialized in various magazines.

John Carter is chased by American Indians into cave in 1866. Trapped, he looks upon Mars and finds himself transported there. He meets and befriends Tars Tarkas, who with Carter's help rises to become Jeddak of Thark, and Carter falls in love with Dejah Thoris, princess of Helium. Carter and Dejah Thoris settle in Helium for almost ten years, where they have an egg (in which a son forms), but just before the five-year incubation period ends someone assassinates the keeper of the atmosphere plant and his assistant. Carter helps the Barsoomians open and restart the plant, but he passes out from lack of air and awakes to find himself again on Earth (in approximately 1876).
THE GODS OF MARS, 1912-1913.
In 1886 John Carter returned to Barsoom, having figured out how to send himself back. (Burroughs maintains that Carter returned to Earth in 1898 to tell him this story.) On Barsoom John Carter learns that Dejah Thoris and Tars Tarkas have undertaken the final pilgrimage down Iss. He is himself trapped in the valley of Dor, where hideous green plant creatures and white apes attack and eat all the pilgrims who succeed in finishing the arduous journey. Carter learns that the Therns have been preying upon the pilgrims, and in turn the First Born have been preying on the Therns. After discovering (and meeting) his son Carthoris in the pits of the First Born, John Carter overthrows their corrupt religion and Issus is killed by her own people as the forces of Helium and the Green Hordes devastate the Therns and First Born. Dejah Thoris and Thuvia, a princess befriended by John Carter, are trapped in an underground dungeon with Phaidor, daughter of Matai Shang, for one year.
Matai Shang secretly frees Dejah Thoris, Thuvia, and Phaidor from their prison but does so only for his own purposes. John Crater pursues Matai Shang and Thurid, a rebel Dator (prince) of the First Born, across Barsoom, eventually finding himself in Okar, the northern polar nation of the Yellow men. There he discovers that a powerful magnet has destroyed every fleet and ship which has attempted to explore the north, and kept the Okarians' secret refuge safe for countless ages. Carter also finds his father-in-law, Mors Kajak, a prisoner. With the aid of Thuvan Dihn, Thuvia's father, as well as Talu (a rebel prince of Okar), they overthrow the last vestiges of Thern power and rescue Dejah Thoris. But they call upon the nations which have befriended Carter through the years, who send a vast armada northward to rescue him. Carter thus has to destroy the great magnet as well as Matai Shang's plans. The Jeddaks of Barsoom's greatest nations proclaim John Carter Warlord of Mars.
Carthoris falls in love with Thuvia, princess of Ptarth, who was rescued by John Carter from the Therns (in THE GODS OF MARS and THE WARLORD OF MARS). Thuvia is stolen away by Astok, Prince of Dusar, Ptarth's rival. Carthoris follows her across Barsoom and rescues her, encountering some strange and fascinating creatures. Thuvia, unfortunately, is already betrothed to Kulan Tith, Jeddak of Kaol, ally of Helium.
John Carter, it seems, has a daughter: Tara of Helium, a petulant, spoiled princess. Nonetheless, Gahan, Jed (Prince) of Gathol, declares his love for her and asks for her hand. Tara rejects him and goes foolishly flying in a great storm. Gahan goes after her. By the time he finally catches up to Tara, she has forgotten who he is, and he assumes the name Turjun, pretending to be a panthan mercenary. Together they challenge the power of O-Tar, Jeddak of Manator, whose barbaric nation of Red Men have preyed upon Gathol for centuries. The Manatorians have elevated Jetan, the chess-like game played throughout Barsoom, to an unprecedented level of skill and excitement: they use live chessmen who fight for live princesses. Gahan finds himself fighting for Tara on the chessboard of Manator, and haunting O-Tar's palace.
Ulysses Paxton, a Captain in the United States infantry during World War I, is mortally wounded but finds himself on Barsoom, given a reprieve. He is taken in by Ras Thavas, an evil (or perhaps wayward) scientist who places the brains of criminals into young bodies as well as resurrects the dead (he buys their bodies for parts and slaves). Paxton falls in love with Valla Dia, whose young body Ras Thavas has sold to Xaxa, aged Jeddara (Queen) of Phundahl. The intrigues and mixed identities Burroughs tosses at the reader make the book pass quickly.
Tan Hadron, a padwar in Helium's navy is poor but of noble blood (his mother being a princess of Gathol). He seeks the hand of Sonoma Tora, daughter of Tor Hatan, an odwar in Helium's navy. Sonoma Tora is interested only in men of wealth and power, but when she is abducted by agents of Tul Axtar, Jeddak of the distant nation of Jahar, Tan Hadron follows her in hopes of freeing her and winning her love. Hadron encounters and befriends Tavia, a slave-girl who escaped from Tul Axtar's harem by disguising herself as a panthan. Together with Nur An and Phao, Jaharians opposed to Tul Axtar's vicious rule, Tan Hadron and Tavia stumble onto Tul Axtar's fiendish plot to conquer all of Barsoom with the inventions of Phor Tak, an aged inventor who can destroy entire navies. It becomes a race against time as Jahar slowly destroys itself from the massive breeding program Tul Axtar has implemented and as Helium's navy approaches unaware of the incredible weapons of destruction the cowardly Tul Axtar possesses. Only his reluctance has prevented Tul Axtar from launching the war against Barsoom, but John Carter's arrival forces the issue and Tan Hadron must save Helium's navy, himself, Tavia, and Sonoma Tora.
SWORDS OF MARS, 1934-1935.
John Carter takes on the Assassins of Barsoom, a powerful guild who have for ages profited from the petty feuds and great rivalries of Barsoom's wealthy families. Along the way, he visits Thuria, one of the moons of Mars.
When Dejah Thoris is critically injured, John Carter goes to find Ras Thavas, Barsoom's greatest surgeon, to save her life. He takes Vor Daj, an officer in his service, with him. They find Ras Thavas a prisoner on Morbus, an island in the Toonolian Marshes (last remnant of Barsoom's oceans outside the polar areas). Morbus is the home of Ras Thavas' hormads, synthetic men who have rebelled against him and made him their slave. Vor Daj lets Ras Thavas transfer his brain to the body of a hormad so that he may move freely among the monsters. In this guise Vor Daj falls in love with Janai of Amhor, a young woman who is pursued by her Jed against her will or desire. But the worst horror arises when a culture vat goes out of control.
LLANA OF GATHOL, 1941/1948.
John Carter sets out to explore the ruined city of Horz, thought to be the most ancient of Barsoom's cities. He helps an Orovar escape from some green men but is taken prisoner and condemned to death to protect the city's secret: that Orovars continue to live in Horz. John Carter escapes with Pan Dan Chee, an Orovar warrior who befriends him. They discover Llana of Gathol, Carter's grand-daughter, in the pits of Horz and escape with her. Llana reveals that she is fleeing from Hin Abtol, a northern Jeddak who has hatched an insane scheme to conquer all of Barsoom. John Carter inevitibly confronts Hin Abtol in a battle for Barsoom.
This book combines two unrelated novellets: "The Giant of Mars" and "The Skeleton Men of Jupiter". "Giant" was actually written by ERB's son, John Coleman Burroughs, who admitted this on at least two occasions. "The Skeleton Men of Jupiter", sadly, is only the first of an otherwise incomplete series of novelettes (thought to be four). ERB never wrote any of the remaining stories, so John Carter's adventures end on Jupiter, although he is reunited at the end of this story with the incomparable Dejah Thoris.

3]. Visual Sources Bibliography

1941-42 Sunday strip drawn by John Coleman Burroughs. (Reprinted in one volume in 1970 by the House of Greystoke, and reprinted again in 1995 by Dark Horse as a backup feature to the "Tarzan: The Lost Adventure" serialization.) John Carter appeared in FOUR COLOR -- issues 375, 437 and 488 (early-to-mid 1950's), and in THE FUNNIES (Circa 1940) issues 30-56. The FOUR COLOR issues were later reprinted in a three-issue series titled JOHN CARTER OF MARS. DC Comics published a brief adaptation of these books in the early 1970s. The first three installments were in issues 207 - 209 of TARZAN (which DC took over from Gold Key). The next seven installments were in WEIRD WORLDS. Some non-ERB stories appeared in the TARZAN FAMILY series. There was a series of John Carter comics published by Marvel in the 1980s. JOHN CARTER: WARLORD OF MARS ran for 27 issues and three annuals, but they contained mostly non-ERB stories, covering the 9-year period not described by ERB in A PRINCESS OF MARS.

Dark Horse Comics published TARZAN VS. JOHN CARTER in 1996. I am told it wasn't faithful to ERB's characterizations. But I don't know anything more about this. (Thanks to Curt Wiederhoeft and Fredrik Ekman for the above info.)

There was a weekly adaptation of A PRINCESS OF MARS in a British weekly. It was called "The Martian" and was drawn by Robert Forrest and ran for 31 weeks in 1958-9.


This list was posted to ERB-list in February 1998. It is included here by permission but the author suggests it may not be complete (though at the time of posting it included all the maps he knew about).

1 -- ERB's own map, probably drawn between 1933 & 1938, and published in J. B. Post's AN ATLAS OF FANTASY (Baltimore, The Mirage Press, Ltd., 1973)

2 -- Robert H. Schlutter, 1948, published in the BURROUGHS BULLETIN #14 (1963).

3 -- Henry Hardy Heins, 1949, published in Alvin Fick, THE DREAM WEAVER (Fort Johnson, N.Y., Pinion Private Press, 1962)

4 -- Frank J. Brueckel, 1962, published in the BURROUGHS BULLETIN #14.

5 -- Larry Ivie, 1962, published in Dave Van Arnam's THE READER'S GUIDE TO BARSOOM AND AMTOR (New York, Richard Lupoff, 1963)

6 -- Michael D. Resnick, published in Caz's ERB-dom, #6, Apr. 1963.

7 -- Mine, done up in 1966 for publication in Caz's ERB-dom, but not published until ERB-APA #50, Summer 1996.

8 -- John F. Roy, 1968(?), published in ERB-dom #27, August 1969.

9 -- Ballantine's wall map (approx. 42" x 66") published about 1972 in connection with the release of the Gino D'Achille covers of the Mars books.

10 -- Greg Bell, published in Gygax & Blume, WARRIORS OF MARS; THE WARFARE OF BARSOOM IN MINIATURE (Lake Geneva, Wisc., Tactical Studies Rules, 1974)

11 -- The Ballantine map of 1972 was reprinted in Scott Bizar's BARSOOMIAN BATTLE MANUAL (Dallas, American Heritage Models, Inc., 1978)

12 -- Scott Tracy Griffin (our own Lord Passmore), in ERB-APA #46, Summer 1995. This is actually a complete atlas, consisting of Azimuthal Equal-Area projections of each hemisphere, supplemented by Mercator projections of each of the four quadrants.

4]. Related Materials Bibliography

There is a biography of ERB, EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS: MASTER OF ADVENTURE, by Richard A. Lupoff, published by Canaveral Press in hardcover and then published by ACE in 1865 and reprinted in 1968.

A GUIDE TO BARSOOM, John Flint Roy, Ballantine, 1976.

Contains the following chapters:

  • I.History (pre-Carter)
  • II. Geography (including maps!)
  • III. Biographies of major characters
  • IV. Flora and Fauna
  • V. Measurements of distance, time and money
  • VI. Language, Religion and Customs
  • VII. Glossary of terms
  • VIII. Quotations and Proverbs
  • IX. Science and Invention
  • X. Where is Barsoom?
  • XI. Who is ERB?
  • George Alec Effinger sent a character (Muffy Birnbaum) to Barsoom. The story is available in various collections. Effinger also contributed piece presenting a Barsoomian opinion on ERB to WAR OF THE WORLDS: GLOBAL DISPATCHES. One of Phillip Jose Farmer's Tier World books has a scene set on a moon constructed to resemble Barsoom.

    Disney has the rights for a movie based on A PRINCESS OF MARS, and it now appears that MASS ILLUSIONS is developing special effects for the movie. (Update note 2003: Disney did not renew options. Barsoom reported picked up by Paramount. No reliable reports regarding production are available.)


    Heritage Models, Inc. produced a battle miniatures game based on Barsoom in the late 1970s. There was a BARSOOM BATTLE MANUAL and miniatures. They also apparently produced an ADVENTURE GAMING HANDBOOK (for RPGs). I have no further information at this time.

    A UK company called Hinchcliffe produced Barsoom miniatures which were distributed by Heritage Models. Green Men were supposedly 10-12' scale. The line was not finished as it seems the Heritage figures replaced these.

    I have read that TSR produced a Barsoom-based RPG in the 1970s (apparently before Heritage Models made their wargame).

    Some people have reportedly made their own miniatures from scratch, especially for Green Men.

    Simulations Publications Inc. published a board game in the 1970s or 1980s. I'm told there were other games but as yet have no information on them. The SPI game is no longer available.

    The Simulations Publications Inc game was called John Carter, Warlord of Mars and published in 1979. Designers were Mark Herman and Eric Goldberg. The game included a map of Barsoom, a city, and an arena. It was a quest-style RPG where each player ran a hero and villain (as a foil to other player's heroes). The game came with a 16-page booklet titled "The World of Barsoom". The game box cover was done by Don Maltz. The SPI game had four scenarios: A hero-versus-villain duel; a hero-roaming-city scenario; a strategic planetary roaming scenario; and a military conquest of all Barsoom. The game was officially licensed and SPI claimed complete faithfulness to the books. The game is no longer in distribution. I'm told SPI folded in 1982.

    I'm told there was an unlicensed computer game called "The Sands of Mars" by T. Swartz released in 1988. It is game #163 in the Eamon Adventurers' Guild's library.

    CHIPCO's Fantasy Rules! was supposed to introduce a Barsoom supplement in June, 1998. I have no further information at this time.

    6]. Description

    Barsoom is geologically as old as Earth but for unexplained reasons developed intelligent life eons before Earth did. The dominant races of Barsoom are humanoids but they differ from us biologically in that they lay eggs (being oviporous) in their reproductive processes. They are also extremely long-lived (some living to be nearly 4,000 Earth years of age) and highly intelligent. The original races were the First Born (Black Men of the South), the Okar (Yellow Men of the North), and the Orovars (the White Men of the Seas).

    Ancient Barsoom had been covered by five great oceans, of which Throxus was the greatest. Through the ages the oceans dried up and the atmosphere began to wither away. A fourth race of men, the Red Men, developed out of the blending of the other three races. But the Men of Barsoom were not the only intelligent species to arise. The green Men increased in number and eventually adapted better to the thinning air and dry lands than the original races. They gradually took over the ancient cities and the growing plains.

    Most of the First Born retreated to the southern polar region, where the lost Sea of Korus fed the underground sea of Omean. There they made a refuge for themselves. Some of the First Born settled in the lush valley of Kamtol. The Okar fled north, ravaged by the green barbarians, but finally found a refuge in the northern polar region. The Orovars dwindled but a few survived in three groups: the Therns, who also settled in the southern polar area, the Orovars of Horz (the ancient capitol of their world-spanning empire), and the Lotharians, a small group of men who built a new city of Lothar in a hidden valley. The Therns propagated the worship of Issus throughout Barsoom, acting as a secret priesthood. But they in turn worshipped an Issus they never saw.

    Issus, it turns out, was an extremely ancient First Born princess who persuaded her people to treat her like a goddess. The First Born and the Lotharians refused to die, and effectively proved to be immortal. But the Therns, the Okar, the Red Men, and even the Green Men all came to believe they needed to sail down the Iss, the last river of Barsoom which flowed to the valley of Dor and the lost sea of Korus, when they reached their 1,000th year.

    Despite the threat of the green hordes (which developed into nations such as Thark, Warhoon, and Torquas), the Red Men persevered in their efforts to survive. They created huge atmosphere plants to replenish the vanishing air of Barsoom, and built new cities near the dwindling water supplies, creating great canals that traversed the planet. They harnassed the mysterious "eighth ray" which enabled them to create large fleets of flying ships. Barsoomian technology flourished in the hands of the Red Men, and the other races took what was needed from them.

    When John Carter arrives on Barsoom he rises to prominence among the Red Men of Helium, marrying Dejah Thoris, their princess, and befriending Tars Tarkas, Jeddak (Emperor) of Thark. Through the following decades the immortal John Carter and his children lead the peoples of Barsoom into a revolutionary period of peace, prosperity, and increasing unity and friendship.

    Barsoom is full of danger and mystery. The great banths, huge lion-like creatures, the fierce apts (white, centaur-like monsters), and the great white apes are only the most well known perils. Every line of hills on the horizon hides a lost tribe or kingdom, and not all the nations of Barsoom have developed or adapted the advanced technology Carter finds in Helium. Nearly all men are trained in arms, and they still favor the use of swords even though they have developed much more potent weapons. Burroughs presents a world rich in history, strange creatures, mythology, legend, and intricate politics unlike any other author.


    1]. Quick Reference

    Caspak is a lost continent or large island located in the southern hemisphere close enough to the Antarctic to have cold climates but northward enough to have tropical or sub-tropical climates as well. The land was placed somewhere west of Peru, approximately between South America and Australasia. The land is home to creatures from a variety of ecological eras in Earth's past, including dinosaurs and primitive humans. These stories are typical of ERB's imaginative science fantasy and adventure books. Primary sources are THE LAND THAT TIME FORGOT, THE PEOPLE THAT TIME FORGOT, and OUT OF TIME'S ABYSS. Note: All of ERB's major series (Tarzan, John Carter, Carson Napier, Moon Men, etc.) are set in the same universe. However, there appears to be no direct connection between Caspak and the major series' universe.

    2]. Printed Sources Bibliography

    Note:These stories, originally published in 1918, have been reprinted many times.

    THE LAND THAT TIME FORGOT, 1918, Story Press Corp.
    Follows the adventures of Bowen Tyler, an American shipbuilder captured by Germans in 1916, along with some British seamen and and American woman, Lys La Rue, who is engaged to Baron von Schoenvorts, captain of the U-boat that sinks their ships and takes them all prisoner. The Germans, British, and Americans discover Caspak and learn to survive there. Tyler writes about their experiences in a diary that he eventually casts into the sea.
    THE PEOPLE THAT TIME FORGOT, 1918, Story Press Corp.
    Tom Billings, a long-time friend to Bowen Tyler, comes into possession of Tyler's manuscript and mounts an expedition to rescue Tyler, Lys La Rue, and the British sailors. Billings gets swept up into the higher politics of Caspak's more advanced peoples as he searches for Bowen Tyler.
    OUT OF TIME'S ABYSS, 1918, Story Press Corp.
    Bradley, one of the British seamen captured with Bowen Tyler, leads an expedition in search of a way out of Caspak. They are cut off from the main party and Bradley finds himself exploring the most dangerous regions of Caspak before he finally is reunited with Bowen Tyler and his shipmates.

    3]. Visual Sources Bibliography

    Russ Manning did 4 48-page adaptations in Europe with Tarzan in Caspak. 2 of these were picked up by Dark Horse Comics and published in a single trade paperback volume as TARZAN IN THE LAND THAT TIME FORGOT AND THE POOL OF TIME.

    Two movies were made in the 1970s by Samuel Z. Arkoff, "The Land That Time Forgot", starring Doug McClure, and "The People That Time Forgot", starring Patrick Wayne. The first movie follows the book by the same name relatively closely, but the second movie provides an entirely new storyline that combines elements from THE PEOPLE THAT TIME FORGOT and OUT OF TIME'S ABYSS without really reaching the same conclusion that Burroughs had. Both movies were distributed on video tape by Embassy Home Entertainment in the 1980s.

    Both movies were also adapted for comic books by Marvel Comics. The first was done under the imprint of Marvel Movie Premier with a cover date of September 1975. These were 68-page, black-and-white format comics.

    6]. Description

    Caspak was apparently formed by a large volcano sometime in the Earth's distant past. It is so far from normal shipping lanes of the World War I era that it has garnered only one mention in previous voyages, by that of an Italian navigator named Caproni who sailed near the cliffs which make up the shoreline of Caspak in 1721. Caproni named the land Caprona and sailed off.

    The only entrance by sea to Caspak/Caprona is an underground outlet for its main river. The river flows through the center of the land from north to south and is fed by all other fresh water sources in the land. The mountains making up the "shoreland" are high enough to prevent manual crossings but apparently also trap the native heat generated by the volcanic sources. Thus, ice and snow form along Caspak's shoreline, making it impossible to land there. The remarkable ecology of Caspak is divided into zones which do not invite intrusion. Evolution has taken a strange turn in Caspak in that no species has truly died out. The adventures of Bowen Tyler, Lys La Rue, and Bradley as they travel through the land and learn its secrets take through the deadliest regions of Caspak, which has a litle history but seems mostly doomed to exist in a near chaotic savagry where there is no hope for relief from constant peril.

    The humans or proto-humans of Caspak live in separate communities and are named Ho-lus, Alus, Bo-lus, Sto-lus, Band-lus, Kro-lus, Ga-lus, and Wieroos. The complex relationship of these various "races" is bound up with the ecology of Caspak. The Ho-lus through the Kro-lus live along the eastern and western shores of Caspak's great river, but the Ga-lus live in the north and the Wieroos live on the volcanic island in a great central lake.

    Caspak has a sort of political structure and even a primitive philosophy or proto-religion. The reader has a good chance of figuring out what's going on in the stories before the characters do, but that's not necessarily a weakness. The author seems to have intended this. Some portions are told in diary format.


    1]. Quick Reference

    Va-nah is the interior world of our moon, Luna. Julian 5th, a man of the 21st Century, leads an ill-fated expedition to Mars that is marooned on Luna, where they discover the remnants of an underground civilization that has destroyed itself. Primary sources are THE MOON MAID, THE MOON MEN, and THE RED HAWK. Note: All of ERB's major series (Tarzan, John Carter, Carson Napier, Moon Men, etc.) are set in the same universe.

    2]. Printed Sources Bibliography

    THE MOON MAID, Ace Books, ISBN 441-53702-095.
    This book was written in 1923. It's been reprinted many times. The cover of the Ace edition I have is a Frazetta piece showing Nah-ee-la on the back of a Va-ga.
    THE MOON MEN, Ace Books, ISBN 0-441-53756-1.
    This is actually two novels in one: THE MOON MEN and THE RED HAWK, both originally published in 1925. Julian 20th was also called The Red Hawk. The cover of this edition is also done by Frazetta, and it shows Julian 20th defending Bethelda from a Kalkar giant (who really should have been more human like) named Raban. This imprint claims to be the first full printing of Burroughs' original texts.

    3]. Visual Sources Bibliography

    No known adaptations.

    6]. Description

    This enchanting saga takes place both on Earth and Luna and it covers many generations. Burroughs injects himself into the story (as he does with Napier and Carter) as an observer who meets Julian 3rd, who is reincarnated into his own family every other generation. Julian 3rd tells Burroughs how he, as Julian 5th, leads an expedition to Mars that fails in its mission, landing instead on Luna, where they discover a Pelucidarean world called Va-nah.

    Va-nah is inhabited by fierce, barbaric, flesh-eating centaur-like creatures called Va-gas. The Va-gas rome about the landscape in tribal groups, fighting with each other and preying on occasional lonely U-gas. The U-gas are humans who have become divided into the two groups: the Laytheans and the Kalkars. Julian 5th learns that once Va-nah had been ruled by a peaceful civilization with 10 kings, called Jemadars. The common folk rose up in rebellion, led by men who called themselves the Thinkers, which term in modified form became applied to all the rebels (in the native form Kalkars).

    The Jemadars were killed by many of the noble families fled into hiding. Eventually one group established an underground city called Laythe, but they lost their ancient technology. The Kalkars, poorly educated, lost all technology as well, and the domesticated Va-gas (bred for meat) revolted against the Kalkars, destroying the last vestiges of the ancient civilization and driving the surviving Kalkars underground.

    The world discovered by Julian 5th is a savage one where the intelligent species are consumed with the need to acquire flesh. The Kalkars stalk the Laytheans, who may be the last remnant of the peaceful Jemadar class of nobles. Orthis, one of Julian's crewmen and a personal rival since their school days, sides with the Kalkars and gives them the technology to find and destroy Laythe. Julian escapes to Earth with the beautiful Nah-ee-lah, daughter of the last Jemadar of Laythe. Orthis follows Julian 5th to Earth with a Kalkar armada and the peaceful civilization on Earth is destroyed. Julian's descendants were enslaved by the Kalkar's with the rest of humanity, but 100 years later Julian 9th (another reincarnation) led the first rebellion against the conquerors, now led by the descendants of Orthis' only son, Or-tis. Julian 9th's rebellion was crushed and he was executed, but men saw they could resist the Kalkars and win back their freedom, and in time the Kalkars were themselves overthrown in many places, because they had lost once again the technology acquired from Orthis.

    300 years later Julian 20th becomes Chief of Chiefs, leader of 50 clans of men who have been slowly winning back America from the Kalkars, driving them westward toward the Pacific Ocean. Julian's people ally themselves with other tribes and they launch a new war against the Kalkars and wins a great victory. But Julian himself is captured by the Kalkars, who take him before the Or-tis 16th, their Jemadar, who offers to make peace with the Julians. Julian refuses to deal with the Or-tis. He escapes and meets another Or-tis who claims to be the rightful ruler of the Kalkars, and also a full-blooded American (a Yank like Julian). The True Or-tis and Julian become allies, but they are separated. Julian falls in with the Nippons, descendants of American Japanese who were never conquered by the Kalkars. While with the Nippons he meets and falls in love with Bethelda, who turns out to be the True Or-tis' sister. Finally, the Or-tis clan and the Yanks join with the Nippons and drive the Kalkars out of America.


    Note: This WorldFAQ was written by David Critchfield. I appended sections 5 and 6 of the Amtor WorldFAQ to complete this document. - MM.

    1]. Quick Reference

    Pellucidar, as every schoolboy knows, is Edgar Rice Burroughs' fantasy world which exists within our own world, at the Earth's core. David Innes and Abner Perry penetrate the Earth's crust in their newly invented mechanical mole and travel five hundred miles down towards the center of the earth, emerging in the prehistoric world. There they fight for existence against stone age dangers and the chance to bring civilization to this world. Primary sources are AT THE EARTH'S CORE, PELLUCIDAR, TANAR OF PELLUCIDAR, TARZAN AT THE EARTH'S CORE, BACK TO THE STONE AGE, LAND OF TERROR, and SAVAGE PELLUCIDAR.

    2]. Description

    Pellucidar's surface is three-fourths land and with an inside diameter of 7000 miles, it's a very large world of 124,110,000 square miles. Its oceans have a combined area of 41,370,000 square miles. Thus, considering the land area only, we have the strange anomaly of a larger world within a smaller one. In the center of this world hangs Pellucidar's sun, continuously at zenith, giving an endless eternity of noon. The sun gives no method by which to measure time and Pellucidar's inhabitants have little concept of it. "The Dead World" is Pellucidar's moon which revolves about the Earth's axis coincidently with the Earth, always a mile above the same spot. Perpetually in darkness, this area is known as "The Land of Awful Shadow". Pellucidar has no horizon since her surface curves away upward in all directions from the observer, so that one's line of vision goes onward and upward until lost in the haze of the distance. A polar opening exists connecting the outer crust to Pellucidar, far north of Korsar. It is believed that the ancestors of the colorful pirates, the Korsars, came from the outer crust.

    Pellucidar's climate is eternally springlike. The atmosphere near the surface is slightly less dense than ours because of centrifugence but is also shallower so it is extremely cold upon mountain heights. Prevailing winds blow, generally, from the north to the south for half of the outer-Earthly year and then the reverse for the other half. Clouds are practically unknown in her skies.

    When Innes and Perry arrive in Pellucidar, the races of man are being preyed upon by a superior reptilian race, the Mahars. The Mahars use the gorilla-like Sagoths, as their servants to enslave men to use in vile experiments and worse. Eventually Innes wins allies and pulls the kingdoms of man together into an alliance against their common enemy. It is thus that the empire of Pellucidar is formed with David as its emperor.

    Innes makes the kingdom of Sari his capital and takes Dian, the Beautiful One as his mate. Using innovations obtained from the outer world and Perry's inventions, the empire drives the Mahars to the far reaches of Pellucidar. The empire knows little peace as next they go against the Korsars, who also possess gunpowder technology.

    So enormous is the land area of Pellucidar, so sparsely populated is it, and so little explored, that one could travel for many sleeps without encountering another person. It is, however, teeming with plant and animal life. It's like a vast melting pot where animals of nearly all the geological periods of the outer crust exist contemporaneously. With beasts such as tandor, the wooly mammoth, the thipdar, the Pellucidarian word for pteranodon, the tarag or sabertooth tiger, and the zarith, the mighty Tyrannosaurus Rex, the human races of the inner world constantly fight for survival.

    The land's races are just as varied as its animal life. The Buried People of Amiocap, the Horibs, the insane Jukans, and the tortured Gorbuses are but few of the strange tribes which exist within the inner world. All the races possess a homing instinct, similar to our pigeons, which allows them to find their way home, no matter the distance. This trait is their only tool of navigation as there are no stars, sun or moon to guide them. This instinct is all the more amazing when you consider that the tribes of The Floating Islands are able to negotiate directly home even when it's never in the same place!

    Burroughs has created a primitive, savage world full of mystery and surprises and peopled with races and characters to love and hate. Pellucidar has captured our imaginations as few worlds have.

    3]. Printed Sources Bibliography

    Note: These books were originally published from 1914 through 1963 and have been reprinted many times.

    Innes and Perry set out on a trial run in Perry's invention, the iron mole, but once in motion, they are unable to change the machine's course. Travelling five hundred miles to the center of the Earth, they expect to meet eternal fires but instead emerge into a new world. The two encounter strange peoples and prehistoric beasts as they fight to stay alive, finally becoming slaves to the reptilian superior race of Pellucidar, the Mahars. The two gain allies and Innes falls in love with Dian the Beautiful One. They eventually escape from Phutra, stealing the Great Secret of the Mahars, without which, the race is doomed to eventual extinction for The Secret contains their method of artificial propagation. The human races of Pellucidar begin to unite, forming an empire with Innes as emperor. Needing books and materials from the outer world to advance their cause, David returns to the surface. As Innes is leaving, Hooja the Sly One kidnaps Dian, substitutes a disguised Mahar in her place, and sabotages the iron mole, sending it off course to a final destination in the Sahara Desert. Edgar Rice Burroughs discovers Innes there and listens to this story. The author then departs and sends him supplies for Pellucidar and 500 miles of wire to establish a telegraph line. It is unclear if Innes returned to Pellucidar or was murdered by Arabs.
    David Innes returns to Pellucidar in the iron mole, bringing such implements as might aid him to establish the empire of his dreams. He finds that his old foe, Hooja, the Sly One, has caused his empire to decay. David and Abner Perry journey across Pellucidar, mapping the land as they go, fighting foes and savage beasts in the search for Dian. Eventually, David rebuilds the empire and crushes the rebel forces of Hooja with the aid of the new fleet of the empire -- fifty ships armed with cannons. Rejoined with his mate, David then marches from one Mahar city to the next, killing or capturing the Sagoths and driving the Mahars out of the empire.
    An unknown race of sea-faring pirates, the Korsars, have been harassing kingdoms of the empire. A part of the force sent to repel them, Tanar the Fleet One, son of Ghak of Sari, is taken captive. This is Tanar's story as he wins the love of Stellara, step-daughter of the mighty Korsar chief, The Cid, encounters many adventures on the islands of the Korsar Az, and falls captive to the Buried People. Coming to Tanar's rescue, David Innes, emperor of Pellucidar, is taken captive by the Korsars. The two escape temporarily, marching north and discovering the polar opening to the outer world. All but David, who remains in a Korsar dungeon, win their way back to Sari. This story is transmitted by Abner Perry to the outer world where it is received by Jason Gridley and Edgar Rice Burroughs. Gridley decides to organize a force and go to Pellucidar to rescue Innes.
    Jason Gridley travels to Africa and enlists the aid of Tarzan to lead the rescue mission to the earth's core. They construct the great dirigible, the O-220, and pick a crew which includes Captain Zuppner, Lieutenant Wilhelm von Horst, Muviro and nine Waziri warriors. They enter Pellucidar through the polar opening but having arrived, realize the worst was yet before them. For almost immediately, the team become separated--each forced to face the terrors of the unknown alone. During their travels, Jason and Tarzan encounter the Horibs, the lizard-people, who fatten-up their captives for later consumption by their females and children. After many adventures, the crew of the dirigible is reunited and then meets the fleet of the empire in route to Korsar to rescue David Innes. The emperor is saved and the dirigible returns to the outer world. Jason decides to stay behind with Jana the Red Flower of Zoram, his love, and to search for the still missing Von Horst.
    Lost and separated from his friends, Wilhelm von Horst wanders from one adventure to the next amid the unexplored terrors of this primeval land. His resourcefulness is tested first when he survives being eaten in a trodon's nest, though paralyzed from the neck down. During his travels he meets and falls in love with the slave girl La-ja, formerly the proud daughter of a chief. The two fall captives to the cave-dwelling Gorbuses, those white-skinned people who have fleeting memories of a former world where they were all murderers or sinners. They escape from them only to be enslaved by the fierce mammoth men. Von Horst is forced to fight for his life against mammoths and saber-toothed tigers in a natural arena. Saved by an old and wise mammoth he once befriended, Old White and Von Horst become travel companions. Eventually found by a search party of Sarians lead by David Innes, Von Horst decides he is content to stay with his little, yellow-haired cave-girl.
    David Innes, emperor of Pellucidar, falls captive to the bearded warrior-women of Oog while returning to Sari. David has to fight for his life as he encounters some of the strangest races of the inner world including the insane warriors, the Jukans. It is in their palace that he becomes friends with Zor of Zoram and the two plot to win their freedom and also that of David's mate, Dian the Beautiful One. Escaping the madmen and pursuing his mate and her captor, the treacherous Do-gad, across new territories, David falls captive to the man-eating giants of Azar, man-size ants, and the natives of The Floating Islands. Finally, near death on the waters of the Bandar Az, he is rescued by a vessel from his fleet commanded by Ja the Mezop.
    David Innes and Hodon, the Fleet One are among those that travel to the aid of the kingdom of Kali which is being threatened by the Suvians. On the trip, Hodon meets his mate-to-be, O-aa, daughter of a king. At the same time, Dian, the Beautiful One tests out the latest invention of Abner Perry---a hot air balloon. Those endeavors go awry and begin a series of adventures which lead both David and Hodon in near hopeless searches for their mates across the lands of Pellucidar. Both women end up being worshipped as goddesses, because of their unusual methods of arrival, in two cities of the bronze age which exist on the other side of the nameless strait which divides Pellucidar's known and unknown lands. During their travels, the men encounter an old sailor from the outer crust. Eventually reunited, the friends fight their way 700 miles overland through stone age terrors to return to their home at Sari.

    4]. Visual Sources Bibliography

    DC Comics published a brief adaptation of AT THE EARTH'S CORE in the early 1970s.

    5]. Related Materials Bibliography (Common to all above)

    There is a biography of ERB, EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS: MASTER OF ADVENTURE, by Richard A. Lupoff, published by Canaveral Press in hardcover and then published by ACE in 1865 and reprinted in 1968.


    ERB fan clubs which publish magazines (according to the 1979 ACE imprints and the ERBCOF-L welcome message) include:

    ERB-dom & THE FANTASTIC COLLECTOR -- $12 for
    4 issues (only partially related to Burroughs)
    Ed., Caz Cazedessus
    P.O. Box 2340
    Pagosa Springs, CO 81147

    George McWhorter 505-852-8729
    Ekstrom Library - Burroughs Memorial Collection
    University of Louisville
    Louisville, KY 40492

    ERBANIA {old, mailto:possibly outdated info)
    8001 Fernview Lane
    Tampa, Florida 33615

    TBN (THE BURROUGHS NEWSBEAT) (old, possible outdated info)
    110 South Shore Drive
    Clear Lake, Iowa 50428

    Ed., John Martin (Limited
    P.O. Box 157
    Galvin, WA 98544

    From the L.A. Chapter of the Burroughs Bibliophiles
    Ed., James Van Hise* (619) 365-5836
    57754 Onaga Trail
    Yucca Valley, CA 92264

    ERB-NOTIZEN (in German)
    Ed., Kurt Denkena
    Postfach 750 331
    D-28723 Bremen, Germany

    Fan publications include:

    Ed., Mike Conran 616-457-1446
    1990 Pine Grove Drive
    Jenison, Michigan 49428

    ERBANIA -- $8 for 4 issues
    Ed., Pete Ogden 813-884-8144
    8410 Lopez Drive,
    Tampa, FL 33615

    FANTASTIC WORLDS OF ERB -- $17.50 for 4 issues
    ED., Frank Westwood
    77 Pembroke Road
    Seven Kings, Ilford
    Essex, IG3 8PQ

    THE EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS LIBRARY OF ILLUSTRATION, edited by Russ Cochran and printed by Russ. It is three oversized volumes beginning with J. Allen St. John (the majority of the surviving St. John works are reproduced here), and then John Coleman Burroughs, some Frazetta and RG Krenkel, and comic book art. These are out of print and rather expensive, running from $300 to $600 for the set.

    ART OF EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS, Joe Jusko. (Paperback & hardback) Devoted to reproducing many of the illustrations done originally for the card sets.

    6]. Online References COMMON TO ABOVE

    A) News Groups


    Also, Burroughs' works can be discussed in rec.arts.sf.written and alt.fan.created-worlds.

    B) Mailing/Discussion Lists

    The Edgar Rice Burroughs Chain Of Friends List (ERBCOF-List). Send email to:


    [Note: That is APSU(zero)(one).]

    Send one or more of these function commands to the Listserver in the body of the mail message:

    SUBSCRIBE ERBCOF-L (Your-full-name)

    subscribes you to ERBCOF-L. [Replace (Your-full-name) with your own full name.]

    UNSUBSCRIBE ERBCOF-L (Your-full-name)

    Removes you from the list. [Replace (Your-full-name) with your own full name.]

    To participate in the ERBCOF-LIST discussion, send your e-mail "post" [message] to ERBCOF-L itself at: ERBCOF-L@APSU01.APSU.EDU

    Note: (zero)(one)]

    The Edgar Rice Burroughs List ERBlist

    To Subscribe to the ERBlist listserver send e-mail with the following in the MESSAGE BODY: Subscribe erb-list yourname@your-isp.domain to


    Moderated by Tangor (tangor@erblist.com)

    C) Web sites

    The Tarzan of the Internet Website


    The Barsoomian Blade (Link is invalid, removed)

    Although it's main focus is Barsoom parody, there is also quite a bit of stuff relating other ERB worlds.



    Extensive site summarizing the works of ERB, Reference, Resources, Articles, Fan Fiction in ERB's Worlds, Glossaries of ERB's Worlds, and more.

    D) Online services

    No special forums.

    E) IRC


    F) Comprehensive lists of resources

    The ERBCOF-L welcome message, which is sent to you after subscribing to the list, contains bibliographical information, a brief history of the ERB Circle of Friends, and contact information for various ERB groups and publications.

    ERBList offers the ERBFAQ detailing the author's life

    Other WorldFAQs posted in alt.fan.created-worlds and alt.fantasy.er-burroughs are "Edgar Rice Burroughs' Vanah (Interior of Luna)", "Edgar Rice Burroughs' Amtor (Venus)", "Edgar Rice Burroughs' Pellucidar (Earth's Core)", and "Edgar Rice Burroughs' Barsoom (Mars)".

    The article ONLINE BOOKS: THE WORKS OF EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS is posted occasionally to alt.fan.created-worlds and alt.fantasy.er-burroughs. It may also be cross-posted to other groups like rec.arts.sf.written and alt.pulp. This article lists ERB books that can be downloaded from Project Gutenberg.

    FAQs owner: Michael Martinez. HTML conversion by David Bruce "Tangor" Bozarth. WorldFAQ: Edgar Rice Burroughs' Logo Image copyright © 1997.