THE AUTHOR AND THE CHARACTERS:
A SUMMARY OF THE KNOWN MEETINGS BETWEEN
EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS AND HIS PRINCIPAL SUBJECTS
18. Jan. 1999FOR ERB-APA No. 60, 62, & 63:
(Part I: The Carter Family Ties)
Some years ago, John F. Roy wrote an article for ERB-dom entitled "The Fictional Edgar Rice Burroughs", in which he presented us with a biography of the character Edgar Rice Burroughs who appears in a number of the books by the author Edgar Rice Burroughs. This character — we may call him Edgar Rice Burroughs prime, or ERB-' for short — was born in about 1855, and was still living in 1967, when he met Julian aboard the Warren G Harding and was given the story that appeared as The Moon Maid. In the course of this long life, he made the acquaintance of a number of interesting people, who became the subjects of the books. A number of arguments have emerged in the literature of fandom, in which these meetings were the topic of speculation; the purpose of this study is to document, where possible, and to infer, where precise documentation is impossible, the various meetings and the stories that resulted from them. We begin with the first of them, both in order of meeting and in order of publication, John Carter, whom he calls "Uncle Jack" or great-uncle, though in all likelihood the relationship is more probably cousins of some degree.
In the Foreword to A Princess of Mars, Burroughs tells us of his first meeting with John Carter: "My first recollection of Captain Carter is of the few months he spent at my father's home in Virginia, just prior to the opening of the civil war. I was then a child of but five years..." (1) We may take it that this visit occurred in the fall of 1860 and the winter of 1860-61, as he goes on to say, "When the war broke out he left us, nor did I see him again for some fifteen or sixteen years."(2) We can read this to mean sometime between 12 Apr. 1861, when the fighting broke out at Fort Sumter, and 17 Apr. 1861, when Virginia seceded from the Union, but most probably close to the latter date.
An interval of "some fifteen or sixteen years" brings us to sometime in 1877, after John Carter's first ten (earth) years on Mars. "He remained with us for about a year and then went to New York, where he purchased a little place on the Hudson, where I visited him once a year..."(3) He notes that he paid regular visits to New York and last saw John Carter in 1885, eight years after his sudden reappearance. At the beginning of March, 1886, Burroughs received a telegram from John Carter asking him to come north at once, and he arrived on 4 March to learn of the Captain's death. Opening the safe in the study, he found the burial instructions he had been told about on his last visit, along with the manuscript for A Princess of Mars. "His further instructions related to this manuscript which I was to retain sealed and unread, just as I found it, for eleven years; nor was I to divulge its contents until twenty-one years after his death."(4)
There has been some speculation as to whether or not Burroughs adhered to these instructions, but I can see nothing to indicate that he did not, at least insofar as publication is concerned. Eleven years later would have been March of 1897, and twenty-one years later would have been March of 1907. Since the manuscript was first "divulged" in the April 1912 All-Story, it would appear that Burroughs even waited an additional five years.
In the opening paragraphs of The Gods of Mars, however, he reveals that he had read the manuscript immediately. "Twelve years had passed since I had laid the body of my great-uncle, Captain John Carter, of Virginia, away from the sight of men in that strange mausoleum in the old cemetery at Richmond.... Twelve years had passed since I had read the remarkable manuscript of this remarkable man..."(5) This brings us to 1898, when, in response to another telegram, ERB-' was summoned to the Hotel Raleigh in Richmond for a third meeting with his redoubtable relative.
"I have learned the secret, nephew, and I may traverse the trackless void at my will, coming and going between the countless planets as I list..."(6) With this startling statement, he presents us with a multitude of possibilities, and leaves us with a multitude of questions. He also presented Burroughs with a bulging portfolio containing the notes upon which the latter based the second book of the series, The Gods of Mars.
At this point things begin to get fuzzy. Did the portfolio contain the notes only for The Gods of Mars? Certain internal evidence would indicate that Gods and Warlord were originally presented as a single story, and subsequently divided for convenience of publication. There is no "frame" for Warlord as there was for the two previous books; instead, the first paragraph of Warlord picks up where the next-to-last paragraph of Gods left off.
The key here, of course, is the qualifier "next-to-last." The last paragraph is a typical Burroughsian cliffhanger, with the narrator wondering "whether the assassin's dagger found one fair bosom or another..."(7) I suspect that this was a literary device inserted by Burroughs, and that in fact he already knew the outcome.
There is, in fact, reason to believe that the portfolio that John Carter gave his nephew at their 1898 meeting contained not only the texts of what became Gods and Warlord, but the fourth volume of the series, Thuvia, Maid of Mars, as well. Not only does Thuvia have no framing introduction, but the entire story is narrated in the third person, dealing with the adventures of Carthoris, the son of John Carter and Dejah Thoris, in his rescue of Thuvia of Ptarth from her Dusarian captors. There are two explanations for this anomaly: either the story was part of the notes transmitted during the 1898 meeting in the Hotel Raleigh, or there was an undocumented visit sometime between 1898 and 1914.
The next meeting between Burroughs and his illustrious relative of which we are informed took place at the Burroughs ranch in Southern California, presumably sometime during 1920 (according to ERB's notebook, as printed in Heins, Chessmen was written between 7 Jan. and 12 Nov. 1921(8) ). In this fifth book of the series, Burroughs returned to the earlier format of a "frame", comprising a "Prelude" and a concluding section of two pages, but retained the third-person narrative introduced in Thuvia. Once again, John Carter barely appears in cameos at the beginning and end, as the story concerns the adventures of his daughter Tara (of whose existence both the reader and ERB learn for the first time).
In the sixth book, The Master Mind of Mars, Burroughs returns to the immediacy of a first-person narration, but with a new narrator — Captain Ulysses Paxton, of whose earthly life we know only that he came across A Princess of Mars at an officers' training camp in the fall of 1917, and that his unit was hit by an artillery shell somewhere in France or Belgium during 1918. The framing device here consists of a letter dated "Helium, June 8th, 1925." How Burroughs received the letter is never explained; Paxton says only that it was transmitted "with the aid of one greater than either of us"(9) — presumably John Carter.
Does this mean an(other) undocumented visit? Not necessarily. In the Prelude to Chessmen, John Carter remarks in passing that thanks to Kar Komak of Lothar, "I can transport inanimate things from Mars to Earth..."(10) So it is likely that the letter simply appeared mysteriously in Burroughs' mailbox, just as if delivered by the U. S. Post Office.
For the seventh book of the series, A Fighting Man of Mars, the introductory frame reveals that the scientists of Helium have stumbled upon the "Gridley Wave," that strange radio-like frequency that Jason Gridley had independently discovered in his Tarzana laboratory, and that Paxton, summoned to Helium to interpret the strange signals being received, immediately recognized their earthly origin and proceeded to transmit to Burroughs the story of Tan Hadron of Hastor. Once again, we have a new narrator, with John Carter appearing only at the beginning and end of the story.
John Carter's next documented visit to earth can be fairly accurately dated with reference to Porges. On 13. July 1933 Burroughs left Tarzana for a visit with friends in the White Mountains of Arizona, where he stayed in a cabin on the Little Colorado River, 11 miles from the town of Springerville.(11) Burroughs eloquently describes the cabin and its setting in the prologue to Swords of Mars, the events of which John Carter related to him during that visit. Once again John Carter himself takes center stage, after a four-volume hiatus during which he was at most a minor character. (I have been told by a native of the area that the cabin still stood as late as the 1940's, but whether it is still there or not I do not know.)
For the ninth book, Synthetic Men of Mars, we are once again indebted to Ulysses Paxton, who translated the story, and Jason Gridley, who received it on his Gridley wave set in Tarzana. Again we have a new narrator in Vor Daj, though John Carter remains a prominent co-protagonist.
The last documented visit of John Carter to his nephew is recounted in the Foreword to Llana of Gathol, and occurred while Burroughs was living in Hawaii, just prior to the U. S. entry into World War II. Heins gives the dates of writing of the four novellas that make up Llana as 24 July to 22 Nov. 1940;(12) we can thus date this last visit to sometime in the early summer of that year. Here we have confirmation that their previous meeting had been the one in Arizona in 1934. There is a note of finality in John Carter's statement that "After you are dead, and it will not be long now, I shall have no earthly ties — no reason to return to the scenes of my former life."(13) A decade, of course, is "not long" in comparison with the thousand-year Barsoomian lifespan!
If there were any later visits, we are not told of them; no information is given concerning the source or sources of the last book in the series, John Carter of Mars. But there is a hint in the Prologue to Llana as to the source of at least one of the novellas. In speaking of his children, Burroughs tells John Carter, "They know you quite as well as I. After I am gone, see them occasionally."(14) Is it possible that John Carter related the events of "John Carter and the Giant of Mars" directly to John Coleman Burroughs? It is interesting to note that the events of "Giant" took place between those of Synthetic Men and the events of Llana while those of "Skeleton Men of Jupiter" (presumably) took place after Llana. The transmission of this last adventure was apparently interrupted due to unexplained causes — perhaps the War — and never completed. Did Jason Gridley relocate permanently to Pellucidar, taking the Gridley wave apparatus with him? We may never know for sure, but there is room for a wealth of speculation (and innumerable pastiches).
To recapitulate, then: we have six confirmed contacts between Burroughs and John Carter, four of which resulted in books:
- — Virginia, late 1860-April 1861: no stories.
- — Virginia and New York, sometime in 1876 or 1877-1885: manuscript of Princess.
- — The Raleigh Hotel, Richmond, 1898: Gods, probably Warlord, possibly Thuvia.
- — Tarzana, 1920: Chessmen.
- — The White Mountains of Arizona, July 1933: Swords.
- — Lanai, Oahu, Hawaii, 1940: Llana.
And two other possible visits, between 1898 and 1920.
|THE MARS BOOKS OF EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS|
|Title||Date begun||Date ended|
|1 A Princess of Mars||??-??-11||??-??-11|
|4 The Gods of Mars||14-Jul-12||??-??-12|
|9 The Warlord of Mars||07-Jun-13||08-Jul-13|
|16 Thuvia, Maid of Mars||07-Jan-14||09-Feb-14|
|39 The Chessmen of Mars||07-Jan-21||12-Nov-21|
|48 The Master Mind of Mars||08-Jun-25||16-Nov-25|
|57 A Fighting Man of Mars||28-Feb-29||10-May-29|
|69 Swords of Mars||06-Nov-33||15-Dec-33|
|78 Synthetic Men of Mars||02-Mar-38||??-??-38|
|— John Carter and the Giant of Mars (JCB)||??-??-39||??-??-39|
|86.1 The Ancient Dead (LG Pt. 1)||24-Jul-40||06-Sep-40|
|86.2 Black Pirates of Barsoom (LG Pt. 2)||27-Sep-40||02-Oct-40|
|86.3 Escape on Mars (LG Pt. 3)||24-Oct-40||30-Oct-40|
|86.4 Invisible Men of Mars (LG Pt. 4)||18-Nov-40||22-Nov-40|
|93 Skeleton Men of Jupiter||25-Oct-41||20-Nov-41|
(Part III: ERB-Prime and the Inner World)
14. July 1999
Normally, as is well-known both inside and outside the APA, I am a most amenable sort, willing to go along with almost any reasonable suggestion, including symposium topics. This year, however, since I had promised that my next contribution would be a continuation of my ongoing series concerning ERB and his characters, I must regretfully abstain from the symposium, though the topic of Tarzan and "The Foreign Legion" is one of more than passing interest.
Having examined the possible contacts between "ERB-Prime" (hereafter referred to as "ERB'") and his two most famous creations, John Carter and Tarzan of the Apes, we come next to David Innes, Emperor of Pellucidar. Once again, Burroughs aids us by providing framing devices for several of the books in this series. The first four include introductory material, variously designated "Foreword" or "Prolog;" Land of Terror has at least a paragraph or so of frame embedded in the first chapter. Only Back to the Stone Age and Savage Pellucidar leave us guessing as to their sources.
Once again, a list of the Pellucidar books with their dates of writing will assist us in placing the books within a context of ERB's life. The appended table, like that in ERB-APA #61, is based on the listings in ERB's notebook, as quoted in the Heins bibliography.(15) In contrast to the even spacing of the Tarzan books, the Pellucidar series begins with two "clusters" — 1913-15 and 1928-29 — followed by a single entry for 1935, and then another "cluster" in 1938-40, with the last of the novelettes that make up Savage Pellucidar delayed four years because of the war. Like the earlier listing, the sequence does not necessarily reflect the years in which the events occurred, but it does give a picture of the earliest possible date when the events could have been recounted to "ERB'". Unlike the situation with the Tarzan books, however, the sequence of writing does match the sequence of eventual publication.
|THE PELLUCIDAR BOOKS OF EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS|
|BOOK TITLE||DATE BEGUN||DATE ENDED|
|06 At the Earth's Core||??-Jan-13||??-Feb-13|
|55 Tanar of Pellucidar||13-Sep-28||21-Nov-28|
|56 Tarzan at the Earth's Core||06-Dec-28||07-Feb-29|
|71 Back to the Stone Age||26-Jan-35||11-Sep-35|
|79 Land of Terror||17-Oct-38||17-Apr-39|
|87 Savage Pellucidar||07-Sep-40||26-Oct-44|
In the "Prolog" to At the Earth's Core we learn that "ERB'" first encountered David Innes while hunting lions "upon the rim of the great Sahara desert"(16) — we are left to assume that he meant the northern rim, though this is not specified — in the company of a band of Arabs. We are not told whether this was the same visit to Africa that included a stay at the Greystoke ranch during which he got the stories which became The Beasts of Tarzan and The Eternal Lover, but the timing would seem to indicate that it was an earlier trip — probably late in 1912 — and might be the same one in which he first met Lord Greystoke in person, and received the story of The Return of Tarzan (written Dec. 1912-Jan. 1913). After listening to Innes tell his story, and seeing the captive mahar substituted by Hooja for Dian, ERB' cut short his lion hunt to purchase the supplies needed by Innes in London. Although he did not accompany these supplies all the way to Innes' camp, it is clear that they were delivered, as Innes wrote to him several times subsequently.(17)
Like Tarzan of the Apes and A Princess of Mars, the first book in this series ends on a cliffhanger. "Did the Arabs murder him, after all, just on the eve of his departure?... Does the answer lie somewhere on the bosom of the broad Sahara, at the end of two tiny wires, hidden beneath a lost cairn?"(18)
The 54 weeks between the last installment of At the Earth's Core (25 Apr. 1914) and the first installment of Pellucidar (1 May 1915) must have seemed like an eternity for the All-Story readers waiting to find out whether Innes had been killed by the band of hostile Arabs threatening him. It must have been worse for "ERB'", as at the beginning of Pellucidar we learn that "[s]everal years had elapsed" since he had done any big-game hunting; thus it appears that he did not consider his visit to the Greystoke ranch in East Africa as a hunting expedition. In any case, the expedition mentioned in the prologue to Pellucidar could hardly have been more than two years after that recounted in At the Earth's Core, on the basis of the dates of writing.
ERB' tells us that just as he was on the point of departure, he received a letter from one Cogdon Nestor, world traveller, indicating that Nestor had accidentally discovered the end of the 500-mile telegraph cable leading to Pellucidar. Hastening to meet Nestor in Algiers, ERB' secured the services of an English telegraph operator named Downes and immediately departed for the oasis where he had last seen Innes at the end of At the Earth's Core, and with the assistance of Downes and Nestor took down the story of David Innes' further adventures on his return to the Inner World. Thus we have the source of Pellucidar, the second novel in the series.(19)
There follows a hiatus of thirteen years, covering the first World War and most of the boom years of the 1920's, before we hear any more of the world at the center of the earth. Then, in a sudden rush, Burroughs wrote Tanar of Pellucidar and immediately afterward, Tarzan at the Earth's Core. These two books are almost halves of a single story, the second taking up immediately where the first leaves off. In the prologue to Tanar we are introduced to Jason Gridley, "radio bug" who, while tinkering with his radio set, has accidentally discovered a totally new type of wave, capable of penetrating solid matter. By means of this "Gridley Wave," as he calls it, he is able to receive signals from Pellucidar, and thus learns from Abner Perry the story of Tanar and the Korsars, and of the captivity of David Innes in the Korsar stronghold. At the end, Gridley announces his intention to mount an expedition to Pellucidar to rescue Innes from prison.(20) And, at the beginning of Tarzan at the Earth's Core, we find Jason Gridley in Africa, attempting to enlist Tarzan in his proposed expedition to Pellucidar.
The foreword to Tarzan at the Earth's Core does not tell us how the story came to ERB', but is merely a recap of the first three books in the Pellucidar series. And at the end, Jason Gridley announces his intention to remain behind and mount an expedition from Sari in search of the missing von Horst, who had become separated from the rest of the expedition. The foreword to A Fighting Man of Mars makes it clear that Gridley has left his laboratory in the care of ERB' during his absence.
Gridley apparently returned to the outer world with the dirigible O-220, presumably with his Pellucidarian bride in tow, and himself narrated the events to ERB'. In the next book in the series, Back to the Stone Age, we learn from David Innes that Gridley, rather than leading the expedition himself, as he implied at the end of Tarzan at the Earth's Core, had overseen its organization and then left it in the capable hands of the Sarians.(21) As noted earlier, Back to the Stone Age, alone among the Pellucidar series, has no framing device, and so we are left to conclude that Abner Perry must have transmitted the story via Gridley Wave to Tarzana.
Although written in 1938-39, soon after the publication of Back to the Stone Age, the next book in the series, Land of Terror, never saw magazine publication (with good reason, in my personal opinion, as it represents the nadir of the series) and its publication in book form came only after three-fourths of its sequel had been written and published in magazine form. Its major claim to our notice is the indication that Innes and Perry are in regular, if infrequent, contact with Jason Gridley via the Gridley wave.(22) This story, narrated by David Innes, picks up where Back to the Stone Age ended, with the expedition in search of von Horst having accomplished its mission (to the extent of finding von Horst, though the latter elected to remain in Lo-har rather than accompany them to Sari in the hope of a return of Gridley in the O-220).
The final volume of the series, Savage Pellucidar, was begun in 1940, soon after the completion of Land of Terror, but only three of the four novelettes were completed before the United States entered World War II. The fourth was written after Land of Terror was published, but did not see print until nineteen years later, in the November 1963 issue of Amazing Stories. The first hardback edition was published by Canaveral before the end of the month, and the first paperback by Ace early the following year.
Concerning its source we have even less to go on than in the case of Back to the Stone Age. In Tanar we learned that Jason Gridley had built a second Gridley Wave station on ERB's property, yet in A Fighting Man of Mars Burroughs states that during Gridley's absence in Pellucidar he was periodically checking the apparatus at Gridley's home nearby, rather than the set that was in his own backyard. Did Gridley dismantle the receiver on the Tarzana ranch, possibly to take it with him on the O-220? Did he set it up again on ERB's property upon his return with Jana? We know that Abner Perry had independently stumbled upon the same wave and that there was a station at Sari capable of sending and receiving; therefore there would have been no reason for Gridley to leave his second apparatus behind when he returned to the surface. Although Burroughs states that the story published as Synthetic Men of Mars was received via Gridley Wave, there is no indication of which receiver was used — though the implication is that it was Gridley's own.
We know that Burroughs was living in Hawaii when he wrote Escape on Venus and Llana of Gathol. The first three sections of Savage Pellucidar were written during the same period (May to November 1940); thus it would seem that at least these three (and probably the fourth, though, as noted earlier, ERB's duties as a war correspondent prevented him from setting it to paper at the time) were also received in Hawaii. There are two possible explanations: either ERB had the second Gridley Wave receiver with him in Hawaii, or else the four stories that make up Savage Pellucidar were received by Gridley at the Tarzana station and forwarded to Burroughs in Hawaii. There is no indication one way or the other in any of the stories written during this period.
In summary, then, there seems to have been only one face to face meeting between ERB' and David Innes, and this occurred sometime during 1912. The second story was transmitted by telegraph; the fourth (Tarzan at the Earth's Core) was related to ERB' by either Gridley or Tarzan. The remaining four stories (Tanar of Pellucidar, Back to the Stone Age, Land of Terror, and Savage Pellucidar) were all transmitted via the Gridley Wave.
(Part IV: The Remaining Series)
IV. The Apache Books: The fourth "series" written by Edgar Rice Burroughs consists of only two books, The War Chief (McClurg, 1927) and Apache Devil (ERB Inc., 1933). The two books, written in 1926 and 1927, respectively, draw on Burroughs' experiences as a member of the Seventh Cavalry, stationed at Fort Grant, Ariz., in 1896-97. It is possible that "ERB-prime" got the story of Shoz-Dijiji, the Black Bear, during that period, though the likelihood of his actually having met the Apache Devil is slight.(23) Since neither book in this series has a frame, however, we cannot definitively rule out such a meeting. But it would seem unlikely on the following grounds:
The events of The War Chief took place between the spring of 1863, when the elder MacDuffs were killed by the Apaches under Geronimo, and 1882 or early 1883, when Shoz- Dijiji rode away from the Crazy B ranch. Andy MacDuff, who became the Apache Devil, would have been born at the end of 1862 or the beginning of 1863,(24) and would thus have been about 20 at the time of the end of that story. Apache Devil takes up the tale some two years later, in 1885, and ends soon after Geronimo's removal to Florida in late 1886. This means that a decade had passed between the time Shoz-Dijiji settled down to run the Crazy B and the arrival of Burroughs (23 May 1896).(25) During the ten months he spent at Fort Grant, it is likely that Burroughs heard the story, but it would seem probable that if he had ever met a personage as famous as the adopted son of Geronimo he would have mentioned it in his letters home.
Furthermore, the story was not written down for another 30 years. It would seem likely that if he had the story first-hand it would have been among his earliest, possibly as early as between The Outlaw of Torn and Tarzan of the Apes. This raises the question of whether ERB- prime may have actually gotten the story at that time. Given the fact that both The War Chief and Apache Devil were written in 1926 and 1927, the possibility arises that he may have gotten the story, either from an "old-timer" in the area or from Shoz-Dijiji himself (by that time no doubt a prosperous, middle-aged pillar of the community) on one of his camping trips to that area.
V. The Venus Series: The last major series begun by Burroughs was that dealing with the planet Venus. This one can be disposed of rather succinctly, since "ERB-prime" met Carson Napier in the flesh only once, as noted in Pirates of Venus.(26) All of their other contacts, both before and after, were by telepathic projection.
Finally, there are two "series" that may be designated as such only because they include common characters. These are The Mucker/The Oakdale Affair and The Eternal Lover/The Mad King. The latter has been dealt with in passing in part two of this series, under the meetings between "ERB-prime" and Tarzan; however, the acquaintance between "ERB-prime" and the Custer family merits further examination.
The common character linking The Mucker and The Oakdale Affair is, of course, the hobo known as "Bridge," whose real name we never learn. Burton the detective mentions, however, in the "lost ending," that Bridge "comes of one of the finest families of Virginia, and one of the wealthiest."(27) Might that family have been the Carters? If so, Bridge might have been a cousin of "ERB-prime" and have been the source of both The Mucker and The Oakdale Affair. Certainly Billy Byrne is unlikely to have been the source; though he and ERB were both in Chicago at the same time, they would hardly have moved in the same circles, to say the least.
For The Eternal Lover and The Mad King, the common characters are Barney Custer and his sister Victoria, of Beatrice, Nebr., and Lieut. Otto Bčtzow of Lutha. As I noted in part two of this series, the two books are actually four novelettes, with the two that make up The Eternal Lover coming between the two that make up The Mad King. The only frame in the entire four novelettes is that which appears as Chapter 2 of The Eternal Lover, where "ERB-prime" mentions that the Custers and Bčtzow were guests on Tarzan's estate in Equatorial Africa at the same time.(28) "ERB-prime" would have heard the story of Part I of The Mad King at this time, as well as witnessing, to a large extent, the events of The Eternal Lover. But he could not have gotten the events of Part II of The Mad King at this time for the simple reason that they had not yet occurred. World War I began with Austria's declaration of war on Serbia, 28 July 1914, and the events of Part II of The Mad King followed almost immediately, including the first (unsuccessful) Austrian offensive during August 1914, of which the Battle of Lutha was an incident, as I noted in my article on Lutha for Phil Currie.(29) Another source must be found.
Porges notes that while at Michigan Military Academy, Burroughs became friends with a fellow cadet named Bert Weston, of Beatrice, Nebr. He and Weston kept in touch for many years by mail, and it is likely that Bert Weston is the source of Part II. (As an interesting sidelight, a "Bert" — no last name — is mentioned in The Mad King.)(30)
Here are the dates of writing and publication for the stories discussed in this section:
|OTHER EDGAR RICE BURROUGHS SERIES, BY DATES OF WRITING|
|Title||Date begun||Date ended||1st Publ||Book Publ.|
|THE APACHE SERIES|
|49 The War Chief||19-Aug-26||12-Nov-26||16-Apr-27||15-Sep-27|
|51 Apache Devil||04-Aug-27||20-Nov-27||19-May-28||15-Feb-33|
|THE VENUS SERIES|
|64 Pirates of Venus||02-Oct-31||06-Nov-31||17-Sep-32||15-Feb-34|
|67 Lost on Venus||06-Aug-32||12-Nov-32||04-Mar-33||15-Feb-35|
|75 Carson of Venus||24-Jul-37||19-Aug-37||08-Jan-38||15-Feb-39|
|84 Escape on Venus||04-May-40||16-Nov-40||Mar-41||15-Oct-46|
|91 The Wizard of Venus||23-Jan-41||07-Oct-41||27-Apr-64||27-Apr-64|
|THE BRIDGE SERIES|
|26 The Mucker (Pt. 2)||24-Jan-16||15-Mar-16||17-Jun-16||31-Oct-21|
|28 The Oakdale Affair||10-Jan-17||12-Jun-17||Mar-18||15-Feb-37|
|THE CUSTER SERIES|
|11 The Mad King (Pt. 1)||26-Oct-13||24-Nov-13||21-Mar-14||18-Sep-26|
|12 The Eternal Lover (Pt. 1)*||27-Nov-13||17-Dec-13||07-Mar-14||03-Oct-25|
|18 Sweetheart Primeval (EL Pt. 2)||21-Aug-14||14-Sep-14||23-Jan-15||03-Oct-25|
|19 Barney Custer of Beatrice (MK Pt. 2)||26-Sep-14||01-Nov-14||07-Aug-15||18-Sep-26|
|* Note that between finishing "The Eternal Lover" and beginning "Sweetheart Primeval" Burroughs wrote The Beasts of Tarzan, The Lad and the Lion, The Girl from Farris's, Thuvia, Maid of Mars, and the second part of The Cave Girl.|
As a final note, we never learn the fate of Victoria Custer: will she die an old maid, or follow her brother to Lutha at Otto Bčtzow's side, or marry "Bert" of no last name? One of those threads that ERB left dangling to tantalize us.
Next time: ERB and the singletons — and that will conclude this series.
- 1. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, A Princess of Mars (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1917), p. vii.
- 2. Ibid., p. viii.
- 3. Ibid., p. ix.
- 4. Ibid., p. xii.
- 5. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The Gods of Mars (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1918), p. vii.
- 6. Ibid., p. ix.
- 7. Ibid., p. 248.
- 8. Heins, Henry Hardy, A Golden Anniversary Bibliography of Edgar Rice Burroughs (West Kingston, R. I., Donald M. Grant, 1964), p. 132.
- 9. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The Master Mind of Mars (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1928), p. 6.
- 10. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The Chessmen of Mars (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1922), p. 3.
- 11. Porges, Irwin, Edgar Rice Burroughs: The Man Who Created Tarzan (Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University Press, 1975), p. 558.
- 12. Heins, op. cit., p. 133.
- 13. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, Llana of Gathol (Tarzana, Calif., Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc., 1948), p. 11.
- 14. Ibid.
- 15. Heins, Henry Hardy, A Golden Anniversary Bibliography of Edgar Rice Burroughs (West Kingston, R. I., Donald M. Grant, 1964), pp. 237-247.
- 16. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, At the Earth's Core (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1922), p. 2.
- 17. Ibid., p. 275.
- 18. Ibid., pp. 276-277.
- 19. The character of Cogdon Nestor, as described by Burroughs, sounds suspiciously like the individual referred to only as 'the Master' in George Allan England's 'The Flying Legion' (Popular Publications, 1919, reprinted in Fantastic Novels, Jan. 1950). Could they be the same person?
- 20. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, Tanar of Pellucidar (New York, Metropolitan Books, 1930), p. 312.
- 21. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, Back to the Stone Age (Tarzana, Calif., Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc., 1937), p. 317.
- 22. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, Land of Terror (Tarzana, Calif., Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc., 1944), p. 9.
- 23. However, Burroughs mentioned a similar character, 'the Apache Kid', in his notes on his time in Arizona, as reported in Porges, Edgar Rice Burroughs: The Man Who Created Tarzan (Provo, Utah, Brigham Young University Press, 1975), pp. 57-59.
- 24. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The War Chief (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1927), p. 4.
- 25. Porges, op. cit., p. 54.
- 26. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, Pirates of Venus (Tarzana, Calif., Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc., 1934), pp. 22-26.
- 27. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The Oakdale Affair New York, Ace Books, 1974), pp. 150-151.
- 28. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The Eternal Lover (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1925), p. 15.
- 29. Huckenpöhler, J. G., 'An Outline of Luthanian History' (ERBivore No. 6-7, August 1973), pp. 12-13, 15, 27.
- 30. Burroughs, Edgar Rice, The Mad King (Chicago, A. C. McClurg & Co., 1926), p. 169.